Commentary & Research

Legal analysis

  • Robin Allen QC and Dee Masters, Cloisters, “Artificial Intelligence: the right to protection from discrimination caused by algorithms, machine learning and automated decision-making”, Academy of European Law, October 2019. Available here.
  • Robin Allen QC and Dee Masters, Cloisters, “Algorithms, Apps & Artificial Intelligence: The next frontier in discrimination law”, October 2018.  Here. A paper from June 2018 presented by Robin Allen QC at the ERA in Trier on this topic is also available. Here.
  • Sandra Wachter, “Affinity Profiling and Discrimination by Association in Online Behavioural Advertising”. Here.


  • Higgins John, “How digitalisation and automatisation affect all aspects of our society”, Eureka Magazine, February 2019, Available here


  • Swee Leng Harris, “Data Protection Impact Assessments as Rule of Law Governance Mechanisms”, June 2019. Here.
  • McGregor Lorna, Murray Daragh and Ng Vivian, “International human rights law as a framework for algorithmic accountability.” I.C.L.Q. 2019, 68(2), 309-343.
  • Borgesius Benjamin, Hoffman and Morgenstern “Predictive Inequity in Object Detection”, 21 February 2019. Here.
  • Couchman, Hannah “Policing by Machine – Predictive Policing and the Threat to Our Rights”, Liberty, February 2019. Here.
  • Katyal, Sonia “Private Accountability in the Age of Artificial Intelligence” (January 3, 2019). 66 UCLA L. REV. 54 (2019) ; UC Berkeley Public Law Research Paper. Available  Here
  • Babuta , Alexander , Marion Oswald and Christine Rinik “Machine Learning Algorithms and Police Decision-Making: Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Challenges”, RUSI, September 2018. Here.
  • De Stefano, “”Negotiating the algorithm”: Automation, artificial intelligence and labour protection”, ILO EMPLOYMENT Working Paper No. 246, 10 July 2018, Here.
  • Borgesius, Frederik Zuiderveen “Discrimination, artificial intelligence, and algorithmic decision-making”, Council of Europe 2018. Here
  • Babuta, Alexander “Innocent Until Predicted Guilty? Artificial Intelligence and Policing Decision-Making”, RUSI, March 2018. Here.
  • Guszcza James et al. “Why We Need to Audit Algorithms” – Harvard Business Review 28 November 2018, available Here.
  • Sourdin, Tania “Judge v Robot? Artificial Intelligence And Judicial Decision-Making” [2018] UNSWLawJl 38; (2018) 41(4) UNSW Law Journal 1114. Here.
  • Bryson, J.J., Diamantis, M.E. & Grant, T.D. “Of, for, and by the people: the legal lacuna of synthetic persons” Artif Intell Law (2017) 25: 273. Here.


  • Amit Datta, Michael Carl Tschantz, Anupam Datta, “Automated Experiments on Ad Privacy Settings: A Tale of Opacity, Choice, and Discrimination” discusses AdFisher, an automated tool that explores how user behaviors, Google’s ads, and Ad Settings interact and has shown how some features of a user’s profile and choices can lead to seemingly discriminatory ads. This report from Cornell University can be accessed here.
  • Inioluwa Deborah Raji and Joy Buolamwini, “Actionable Auditing: Investigating the Impact of Publicly Naming Biased Performance Results of Commercial AI Products”, 2019, Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Ethics, and Society. Here.
  • Joy Buolamwini and Timnit Gebru, “Gender Shades: Intersectional Accuracy Disparities in Commercial Gender Classification” in the Proceedings of Machine Learning Research 81:1–15, 2018, Conference on Fairness, Accountability, and Transparency. Here.
  • Lauren Rhue, “Racial Influence on Automated Perceptions of Emotions”, November 2018. Here.
  • Sandra Wachter, “Normative Challenges of Identification in the Internet of Things: Privacy, Profiling, Discrimination, and the GDPR”, 2018, Computer Law and Security Review. 34 (3) 436-449. Here.
  • Wade J. Mitchell, Chin-Chang Ho, Himalaya Patel, Karl F. MacDorman, “Does social desirability bias favor humans? Explicit–implicit evaluations of synthesized speech support a new HCI model of impression management”, Computers in Human Behavior, March 2017. Here.
  • Rosa Mikeal Martey, Jennifer Stromer-Galley, Jaime Banks, Jingsi Wu, Mia Consalvo. “The strategic female: gender-switching and player behavior in online games”. Information, Communication & Society, 2014; 17 (3): 286 DO. Here.
  • Sam Corbett-Davies, Emma Pierson, Avi Feller and Sharad Goe.
    “A computer program used for bail and sentencing decisions was labeled biased against blacks. It’s actually not that clear.”, Washington Post, October 2016. Here.
  • Mittelstadt, B.D., Allo, P., Taddeo, M., Wachter, S. and Floridi, L. (2016) “The ethics of algorithms: Mapping the debate”, Big Data & Society. 3 (2) 205395171667967. Here.
  • Clare Garvie, Alvaro Bedoya and Jonathan Frankle, “The Perpetual Line Up, Unregulated Facial Recognition in America”, George Town Centre on Privacy & Technology, 18 October 2016. Here.
  • Byron Spice, “Questioning the Fairness of Targeting Ads Online”,
    Carnegie Mellon University, July 2015. Here.